Further, the World Bank predicts that by , increasing demand—particularly in agriculture—for water and dwindling supply will engender shortages in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia where water is now abundant, provoking migration, competition, and clashes. Sanaa, the capital of Yemen, is thought by some to be at grave risk for complete depletion of its groundwater supplies by Michel Specter reported in that in Pakistan, the water allotment for each person is one third of levels, decimated by population growth, climate change, and rising demand for meat, which requires more water for livestock feed.
One billion people in Asia are expected to be at high risk for severe water stress or deprivation by , according to a March study performed by researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Water scarcity refers to limited access to clean water, along with proper sewage and sanitation. Absolute water scarcity, according to Schewe et al. As reported by Peries early in , according to new research by Hoekstra and Mekonnen, year-round freshwater scarcity is endured by close to half a billion people throughout the year, with upwards of 4 billion people experiencing at least one month of freshwater scarcity.
One stark example of our planet at risk is the fact that more people in the world have mobile phones than access to sanitary water. Life-threatening illnesses result from water scarcity, rendering it a leading cause of death worldwide. It may seem odd to discuss water scarcity in light of the prediction of more floods emerging due to ACD; most predictions include the forecast for more droughts as well. But the broader outlook calls for higher average rainfall, due to elevated moisture in the atmosphere, and wider extremes in weather, with worsening droughts in areas already affected due to deep disruptions in traditional global weather patterns.
Water scarcity is an alarming concern for obvious reasons in drought-stricken regions but also, paradoxically, in areas with increasing rainfall. Water quality may likely decline in such regions with expanding economic growth or substantial industrialization due to increasing contamination further disseminated and integrated into rivers, streams, lakes, and groundwater after deluges.
Agriculture, and its use of irrigation, is responsible for 70 percent of the water used around the world, with significant subsidies in the developed world eliminating any incentive for industry to stem the flow. For a full mindmap behind this article with articles, videos, and documents see water. Water scarcity is and will increasingly be exacerbated by population growth, changes in rainfall and evaporation patterns incurred by ACD, dwindling resources, and increased competition for those resources, thus also compounding food insecurity.
Increasingly devastating megastorms also contribute to food insecurity by wiping out crops and livestock. To yield a single hamburger, for example, hundreds of gallons of water are necessary, according to Specter. As reported in by Vidal in The Guardian , Falkenmark and colleagues estimated in the report Food Security: Overcoming Water Scarcity Realities , which coincided with World Water Week in Stockholm at the end of August that year, there will not be sufficient water in the world to sustain the worldwide reliance on a Western-style meat-based diet by But it is important to note that the practice—linked to multiple small earthquakes—is associated with poisoning nearby groundwater and, in several locations in the U.
In other words, in addition to concerns that the toxic chemicals employed in the process to shatter shale rock in order to extract latent oil and gas will poison adjacent water supplies, the industrial procedure itself is conducted in areas such as Colorado and Texas with water supplies already compromised by drought and heavy use from other industry, agriculture, and municipal life.
The billions of gallons of water used in fracking in Colorado and other Western U. In , the U. Environmental Protection Agency estimated, according to Kentworthy, that the 35, wells used in fracking throughout the country require anywhere from 70 to billion gallons of water annually, approximating the yearly water use of one or two cities each with the population of 2. The governor of New York has banned the use of fracking in that state, but it continues to be permitted in the adjacent state of Pennsylvania. Brahma Chellaney, author of Water, Peace, and War: Confronting the Global Water Crisis , claims that water has already played at least a contributing role in several post-World War II conflicts, such as diminished fresh water availability triggering food price spikes motivating the Arab Spring in or wrangling over riparian rights when rivers traverse more than one country.
Chellaney contends that control of the sources of the Jordan River lay at the heart of the Six-Day War and the s fighting between India and Pakistan over the Indus River system. With increasing corporate control over water, suspect or deteriorating water infrastructure, and dwindling of groundwater supplies, the prospects are likely for continuing battles over access to clean, safe, and free water as a human right.
Fracking, based on human hubris and greed, similarly exacts an untold toll on the environment, amplifying effects and feedback loops associated with climate change. As global population increases, resources wane, and the climate renders the Earth less habitable, it remains to be seen whether arms will be taken up to fight exclusively over the most precious resource.
Writers including Brahma Chellaney, Steven Solomon, and particularly Ismail Sarageldin have suggested that just as oil has been the main commodity over which human blood has been spilled during the last several decades, water will be the resource that is targeted in the near future if and when militaries wage war.
With so much of the world covered by water, but less and less water available to drink, is it water that will be our undoing? The difficult but deeper truth is that each one of the smaller-scale conflicts over water access is vital. The world came back from signing the climate accord in Paris last December exactly as Chamberlain returned from Munich: hopeful , even exhilarated, that a major threat had finally been tackled. And it may be too late already to meet that stated target: We actually flirted with that 1. Not long after Paris, earth scientists announced that the West Antarctic ice sheet is nowhere near as stable as we had hoped; if we keep pouring greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, it will shed ice much faster than previous research had predicted.
The Antarctic research did contain, as the Times reported, one morsel of good news. For years now, climate scientists and leading economists have called for treating climate change with the same resolve we brought to bear on Germany and Japan in the last world war. But what would that actually look like?
As it happens, American scientists have been engaged in a quiet but concentrated effort to figure out how quickly existing technology can be deployed to defeat global warming; a modest start, in effect, for a mighty Manhattan Project. Mark Z.
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Jacobson , a professor of civil and environmental engineering at Stanford University and the director of its Atmosphere and Energy Program, has been working for years with a team of experts to calculate precisely how each of the 50 states could power itself from renewable resources. The numbers are remarkably detailed: In Alabama, for example, residential rooftops offer a total of In the past year, the Stanford team has offered similar plans for nations around the world.
The research delves deep into the specifics of converting to clean energy. Would it take too much land? Do we have enough raw materials? But would the Stanford plan be enough to slow global warming?
The planet would stop heating up, or at least the pace of that heating would slow substantially. To make the Stanford plan work, you would need to build a hell of a lot of factories to turn out thousands of acres of solar panels, and wind turbines the length of football fields, and millions and millions of electric cars and buses.chinausinvest.org/modules/logiciel/
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But here again, experts have already begun to crunch the numbers. The answer: 6, gigawatts. Which is kind of too long. So Solomon did the math to figure out how many factories it would take to produce 6, gigawatts of clean energy in the next 35 years.
To match the flow of panels needed to meet the Stanford targets, in the most intense years of construction we need to erect 30 of these solar panel factories a year, plus another 15 for making wind turbines. Defeating the Nazis required more than brave soldiers. It required building big factories, and building them really, really fast. Huge, complicated planes, endlessly more intricate than solar panels or turbine blades—containing 1,, parts, , rivets.
Nearby, in Warren, Michigan, the Army built a tank factory faster than they could build the power plant to run it—so they simply towed a steam locomotive into one end of the building to provide steam heat and electricity.
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That one factory produced more tanks than the Germans built in the entire course of the war. In another corner of Michigan, a radiator company landed a contract for more than 20 million steel helmets; not far away, a rubber factory retooled to produce millions of helmet liners. Nothing went to waste--when car companies stopped making cars for the duration of the fighting, GM found it had thousands of model-year ashtrays piled up in inventory. So it shipped them out to Seattle, where Boeing put them in long-range bombers headed for the Pacific.
Pontiac made anti-aircraft guns; Oldsmobile churned out cannons; Studebaker built engines for Flying Fortresses; Nash-Kelvinator produced propellers for British de Havillands; Hudson Motors fabricated wings for Helldivers and P fighters; Buick manufactured tank destroyers; Fisher Body built thousands of M4 Sherman tanks; Cadillac turned out more than 10, light tanks. And that was just Detroit—the same sort of industrial mobilization took place all across America. According to the conventional view of World War II, American business made all this happen simply because it rolled up its sleeves and went to war.
As is so often the case, however, the conventional view is mostly wrong. Luckily, Roosevelt had a firm enough grip on Congress to overcome the Chamber, and he took the lead in gearing up America for the battles to come. Mark Wilson, a historian at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, has just finished a decade-long study of the mobilization effort, entitled Destructive Creation.
They placed the contracts, they moved the stuff around. If firms refused to take direction, FDR ordered many of them seized. In many cases, federal authorities purposely set up competition between public operations and private factories: The Portsmouth Naval Shipyard built submarines, but so did Electric Boat of Groton, Connecticut. That attitude quickly reset after the war, of course; solidarity gave way to the biggest boom in personal consumption the world had ever seen, as car-packed suburbs sprawled from every city and women were retired to the kitchen.
Between 75 and of the nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground. The scenario was devised prior to the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles. It was also devised before U. President John F. Kennedy and his Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara changed the US Nuclear War plan from the 'city killing' countervalue strike plan to a "counterforce" plan targeted more at military forces. Nuclear weapons at this time were not accurate enough to hit a naval base without destroying the city adjacent to it, so the aim in using them was to destroy the enemy industrial capacity in an effort to cripple their war economy.
Eisenhower , US Army , on 2 April Exercise Mainbrace brought together ships and over 50, personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and Norway from Russian attack in It was the first major NATO exercise. Ridgeway , US Army , during the autumn of Exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault.
It involved over warships and aircraft under the overall command of Admiral Carney. The overall exercise commander, Admiral Carney summarized the accomplishments of Exercise Grand Slam by stating: "We have demonstrated that the senior commanders of all four powers can successfully take charge of a mixed task force and handle it effectively as a working unit. As the largest peacetime naval operation up to that time, Operation Strikeback was characterized by military analyst Hanson W. The exercise was intended to ensure that NATO had the ability to quickly deploy forces to West Germany in the event of a conflict with the Warsaw Pact.
Therefore, in the event of a Soviet invasion, in order not to resort to tactical nuclear strikes, NATO forces holding the line against a Warsaw Pact armored spearhead would have to be quickly resupplied and replaced. Most of this support would have come across the Atlantic from the US and Canada.
Reforger was not merely a show of force—in the event of a conflict, it would be the actual plan to strengthen the NATO presence in Europe.