We have also found that use of several adjectives to qualify one noun in highly technical language can be confusing to readers. We encourage authors to "unpackage" concepts and to present their findings and conclusions in simply constructed sentences. Our journal subeditors and copyeditors edit the manuscript so that it is grammatically correct, logical, clear and concise. Of course, this process is assisted greatly if the authors have written the manuscript in a simple and accessible style, as the author is the best person to convey the message of the paper and to persuade readers that it is important enough to spend time on.
We ask authors to avoid jargon and acronyms where possible.
Writing custom research papers
The acronym is second-nature to the author but is not to the reader, who may have to refer to the original definition throughout the paper when an acronym is used. Titles need to be comprehensible and enticing to a potential reader quickly scanning a table of contents or performing an online search, while at the same time not being so general or vague as to obscure what the paper is about.
We ask authors to be aware of abstracting and indexing services when devising a title for the paper: providing one or two essential keywords within a title will be beneficial for web-search results. We adopt this numbering style because we believe the text flows more smoothly, and hence is quicker for the reader to absorb. Our experience has shown that a paper's impact is maximized if it is as short as is consistent with providing a focused message, with a few crucial figures or tables. Authors are asked to provide short "signposts" at appropriate points in their paper to indicate that SI is present to expand on a particular point for example "for more details, see figure x in SI so that readers can navigate easily to the relevant information.
We also encourage authors who are describing methods and protocols to provide the full details as SI. We all face the challenge of how to make the best use of our time in an era of information overload. Judicious use of SI to ensure that the printed version of a paper is clear, comprehensible and as short as is consistent with this goal, is very likely to increase the paper's readership, impact and the number of times others cite it. A number of articles and websites provide detailed guidelines and advice about writing and submitting scientific papers. Some suggested sources are:.
Researchers whose first language is not English often find it useful to either ask a colleague whose native language is English to review the manuscript before submission to a journal, or to use one of the many services that will, for a fee, edit papers to ensure the English is clear and well written. Advanced search. Skip to main content. Don't use abbreviations or citations in the abstract. It should be able to stand alone without any footnotes. What question did you ask in your experiment? Why is it interesting? The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand why you were interested in the question you asked.
One to fo ur paragraphs should be enough. End with a sentence explaining the specific question you asked in this experiment. How did you answer this question? There should be enough information here to allow another scientist to repeat your experiment. Look at other papers that have been published in your field to get some idea of what is included in this section.
If you had a complicated protocol, it may helpful to include a diagram, table or flowchart to explain the methods you used. Do not put results in this section. You may, however, include preliminary results that were used to design the main experiment that you are reporting on. Mention relevant ethical considerations. If you used human subjects, did they consent to participate. If you used animals, what measures did you take to minimize pain?
This is where you present the results you've gotten. Use graphs and tables if appropriate, but also summarize your main findings in the text. Do NOT discuss the results or speculate as to why something happened; t hat goes in th e Discussion.
You don't necessarily have to include all the data you've gotten during the semester. This isn't a diary. Use appropriate methods of showing data. Don't try to manipulate the data to make it look like you did more than you actually did. If you present your data in a table or graph, include a title describing what's in the table "Enzyme activity at various temperatures", not "My results". For graphs, you should also label the x and y axes. Don't use a table or graph just to be "fancy".
If you can summarize the information in one sentence, then a table or graph is not necessary.
Highlight the most significant results, but don't just repeat what you've written in the Results section. How do these results relate to the original question? Do the data support your hypothesis? Are your results consistent with what other investigators have reported? If your results were unexpected, try to explain why. Is there another way to interpret your results? What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results? How do y our results fit into the big picture?
How to write your paper
End with a one-sentence summary of your conclusion, emphasizing why it is relevant. This section is optional. You can thank those who either helped with the experiments, or made other important contributions, such as discussing the protocol, commenting on the manuscript, or buying you pizza. There are several possible ways to organize this section. Here is one commonly used way:. In the text, cite the literature in the appropriate places:. Scarlet thought that the gene was present only in yeast, but it has since been identified in the platypus Indigo and Mauve, and wombat Magenta, et al.
In the References section list citations in alphabetical order. Indigo, A.
Queer place for qwerty: gene isolation from the platypus. Science , Magenta, S. Wombat genetics.grupoavigase.com/includes/169/5254-excursiones-desde.php
Improving the way authors proof research papers
In: Widiculous Wombats, Violet, Q. New York: Columbia University Press. Scarlet, S. Isolation of qwerty gene from S. Journal of Unusual Results 36, Unfortunately, they're all the same page.
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Write accurately Scientific writing must be accurate. Although writing instructors may tell you not to use the same word twice in a sentence, it's okay for scientific writing, which must be accurate. A student who tried not to repeat the word "hamster" produced this confusing sentence: "When I put the hamster in a cage with the other animals, the little mammals began to play. Instead of: The rats were injected with the drug. Temperature has an effect on the reaction. Temperature affects the reaction.